Columns of birth, death, and marriage dates should be aligned. Columns of census links should be aligned. Rows of census links should be midway between rows of the descendant tree. If columns are misaligned or census rows overlap tree rows, or if clicking buttons has no effect, then there is a problem (but please be patient while pages with lots of data are loading). Everything should fit nicely with the display set to 1024x768 and the browser window maximized.

This is a work in progress; at this stage it is much like putting together a jigsaw puzzle. Aside from some original research on close relatives, and the addition of census data, all information comes from published books and articles; I am merely reorganizing it. Sources do not always agree, and questions remain - e.g. which wife was the mother of which children, or which of multiple people with the same name is meant? I note such questions in my records for future attention, but do not present them here. In general, consider the outline to be essentially accurate, but be wary of specific details. The list of sources is in alphabetical order of surname, then in descending order of the number of descendants with the surname that it mentions. For the sake of eliminating clutter, if the number is less than three, then the source is not shown. It would be better to note a source with each piece of information; but for now, the list shows at a glance which sources are most significant to the enterprise.

The ANCESTORS page lists my ancestors. The easiest way to understand the structure is to click the red Hide button, then click [+] to expand nodes one by one.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
me me
my father
my mother
my father
my father's father
my father's mother
my mother
my mother's father
my mother's mother

The DESCENDANTS page lists surnames of my ancestors, and for each surname indicates the number of descendants, and whether any are linked to census information. Duplicate surnames may be unrelated, or may be related with the connection not yet established. There is a tree for each listed surname. Each tree begins with the earliest known male ancestor (or a placeholder if the earliest known ancestor is female) in America, and includes only the male line, i.e. descendants with the same surname. The female line is untraced for now; maybe someday. This is completely sexist, but keeps things organized. Spouses who are also descendants have surnames that link to other trees (or the same tree in the case of marriage between cousins). Spouses who are unrelated (or not yet connected) have surnames in parentheses, with no further information. Click the red Hide button to hide all but the first person, then click [+] to expand nodes. Click the red Show button to show everyone in the tree. Click the red Ancestors button to show only my ancestors (in red) and their siblings. Click the blue Show button to view census data, if it is there. Be patient; response time may be slow if the tree contains lots of names.

Old Style vs New Style
I prefer double dates (i.e the date as it was when originally recorded, with a slash between years for dates before March 25 when the new year began) and retain them in my records as much as possible. Sources are not always clear or consistent. If I am not certain whether a source has used old or new style, I enter the date as is. Quaker dates for many ancestors add another layer to the translation process (1st month before 1752 was March, 1st month after 1752 was January). Because double dates do not fit well in tabular format, I present the new year rather than the old year, which seems mentally easier. In general, beware. (Beware in particular of Howland. The main source presents months as numbers regardless of their origin in Quaker or town records; an introductory statement implies that 1st month is January throughout, but some dates suggest otherwise, e.g. 31, 11, 1720.) Date ranges typically come from census records. I've gravitated to a standard in which dates that are before (<), after (>), or approximate (~) are entered as year only unless they are tied to official events (e.g. baptism, will probate, marriage license), but I did not adhere to this standard initially so there will be exceptions until I do cleanup. Again I retain the events in my records but don't display them here.

Places are displayed as state and county only, partly because of limited space, partly because county seems a reasonable degree of resolution to see whether people stayed put or moved (though sometimes the county name changed around them). I retain full place names in my records when available. Census places in the descendant trees link to more detailed census listings that show township, city, etc. To the extent that I can determine, the county name is what it was at the time of the event, not what it is now. This is definitely true for census records, but questionable for birth, death, and marriage information from secondary sources.

Census has a better index. has better images. I sometimes use to find people, but always download images from and extract the information later, so I use its page and image numbers; roll number is the same for both. There are generally points of correspondence (e.g. the image number may be an page number or vice versa).